tRNAseq, tRNA

7 March 2024

Implications of tRNA abundance on translation elongation across bovine tissues

Goldkamp AK, Hagen DE. Implications of tRNA abundance on translation elongation across bovine tissues. Front Genet. 2023 Dec 19;14:1308048. doi: 10.3389/fgene.2023.1308048. PMID: 38174049; PMCID: PMC10763252.

Introduction: Translation is a crucial stage of gene expression. It may also act as an additional layer of regulation that plays an important role in gene expression and function. Highly expressed genes are believed to be codon-biased to support increased protein production, in which quickly translated codons correspond to highly abundant tRNAs. Synonymous SNPs, considered to be silent due to the degeneracy of the genetic code, may shift protein abundance and function through alterations in translational efficiency and suboptimal pairing to lowly abundant tRNAs. 

Methods: Here, we applied Quantitative Mature tRNA sequencing (QuantM-tRNAseq) and ribosome profiling across bovine tissues in order to investigate the relationship between tRNA expression and slowed translation. 

Results: Moreover, we have identified genes modulated at transcriptional and/or translational levels underlying tissue-specific biological processes. We have also successfully defined pausing sites that depict the regulatory information encoded within the open reading frame of transcripts, which could be related to translation rate and facilitate proper protein folding. This work offers an atlas of distinctive pausing sites across three bovine tissues, which provides an opportunity to predict codon optimality and understand tissue-specific mechanisms of regulating protein synthesis.

Keywords: tRNA, translation, bovine, ribosome profiling, gene regulation